to officers of Revenue Department
There are three training centers to train the officers of
revenue department. The training centers are located at
Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur and Kozhikode for Chain Survey
and Higher survey. The chain survey course of Revenue officers
is one month duration and Higher survey training of two
The training classes are conducted by Head Surveyor assisted
by First Grade Surveyor. The selection for the training
are made by the Land Revenue Commissioner.
The syllabus of the Chain Survey course is as follows.
1. Simple proportion, squares of numbers, square roots,
Decimals, properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, Circles,
radius and diameter.
2. Area of geometrical figures, triangles and quadrilaterals
and irregular fields.
3. Construction of scales- simple, diagonal and vernier.
4. Field work:- (i) Construction and use of the equipment
in Chain Survey, such as chain, cross-staff, offset poles
(ii) Testing the accuracy of the chain and cross-staff.
5. Ascertaining correct results with the aid of incorrect
chain and cross-staff. Measurement of lines. Recording of
measurements. Measurements along slopping ground by stepping.
Obstructed lines both invisible and inaccessible. Surveying
small fields and preparation of sketches.
6. Construction of different area square-papers and converting
the area computed by different area square-papers and computing
scales from plot on different scales.
7. Ascertaining measurements of lines obstructed by tank-bed,
prickly pear, houses, etc., by constructing rectangles,
right angles, triangles, trapezoids, similar triangles with
chain only and similar triangles within right-angled triangles.
8. Finding measurements between points on opposite banks
of an unaffordable river from one bank by constructing equal
right-angled triangles and similar triangles.
9. Fixing the length of a line between two points on the
banks of an unaffordable river from the other bank by constructing
equal right angled triangles. Measurements of offsets on
the obstructed lines and also of obstructed offset lines.
10. Calculation of chain and offset lines on an obstructed
line from those measured from another line. Measurement
of fields containing two town subdivisions in them.
11. Measurement of narrow fields both in the triangle and
offset system and also in the base line system and the advantage
of the latter over the former method.
12. Preparation of eye-sketches:- Sketches in the rough
note-book and also recording of important features and topographical
details seen in the field in the rough notebook
13. Explanation of methods for fixing the missing survey
marks on the survey boundaries, creating new subdivisions
within surveyed blocks to the given areas.
14. Survey of a block of 40 acres of land containing several
survey fields each field containing a number of subdivisions,
running of purtal lines and offsetting of all the nearest
15. Plotting of survey-fields to prescribed scales and preparation
of plotted sketches, preparation of demarcation sketches
on scale 1/2000 and map on scale 1/5000 with the aid of
the purtal lines and offsets records and also plotted sketches
of the survey fields.
16. Finding area with area square paper and computing scales
both from the plotted sketches and from the group sketch.
17. Comparison of area as per the above two results and
18. Explanations of the several provisions of the Kerala
Survey and Boundaries Act, 1961 (act 37 of 1961), the L.R.M.
rules and also the duties of various officers under the
rules. Explanation on the different methods of survey such
as Khasra, Base line and offset system, Tak system and triangles
and offset system. Explanation of the correction of measurements
in the records where errors are recovered.
Syllabus for Higher Survey
1. Explanation of instruments used for measuring angles,
study of ordinary compass, cardinal directions, magnetic
bearings, deviation of the north indicated by compasses,
reason for the same. Magnetic pole-Prismatic compasses-
Principles to be observed in surveying with compasses in
writing field books plotting the bearings with protractor.
The incidental errors in plotting with the protractor- Adjustment
of errors- The scope and accuracy in compass surveying.
2. Theodolite:- Its use and accuracy. Explanation of different
parts of the instrument with reference to the functions
of each part. Temporary and permanent adjustment-Reading
horizontal angles from primary and vernier scales.
3. Explanation of logarithms:- Use of logarithms in mathematical
calculations, multiplication, divisions evolution and involution
4. Practice in observing horizontal angles by theodolite
and completing a traverse circuit of 4 to 6 sides. Angular
check of a closed circuit and study of the following:-
Computation of deduced bearing and reduced bearing and reduced
bearing-Rectangular co-ordinates and spherical coordinates
Distance proof of a closed circuit. Allowable limits of
errors in angles and distances and adjustment of errors.
5. Trigonometry:- Trigonometrical ratios in right-angled
triangles-Finding the height of inaccessible points.
6. Explanation of the different columns of a traverse sheet
–The significance of each column, working out plotting
lines and explanation of plotting. The necessity of double
check in every operation of survey in field and office-Working
out area columns, map plotting, preparation of squares,
plotting chain survey fields within traverse plot.
7. Observation of vertical angles:- Angles of elevation
and depression, calculation of horizontal and vertical distances
from observed angles, convergence of meridians.
8. Solution of triangles:- Triangulation survey- Value of
trigonometrical station-Astronomical terms used in survey
–Azimuth by Sun’s observation-Main circuit and
9. Different special types of survey:- Town survey, Railway
survey, Village site survey-Limit of errors in town survey.
10. Other survey instruments generally in use:- Optical-
square, sextant, prismatic compass, plane table. The use
of the above instruments and the comparative merits of each.
11. The description of the leveling instrument (not details)
its use and its working – explanation of terms-Gradients,
contouring, and benchmark.
12. Surveying with theodolite a circuit of 15 to 25 stations-setting
up and computation of closed traverse.
13. Enquiry and disposal of land complaints.
14. Harmonizing traverses with values of trigonometrical
15. Refixing missing stones in a theodolite traverse measurement
of obstructed theodolite line and problems connected therewith,
and ranging a true long line.
16. Reading of topographical maps of the Survey of India-Identification
of fields in revenue survey map.
17. Land records maintenance work-Explanation of different
practices and rules-Maintenance of frontier boundary marks-explanation
of standing orders relating to maintenance of frontier boundary.
Examination is conducted at the end of the course by the
Director of Survey and Land Records and certificate issued
Chain Survey:- Three months Chain Survey Courses are conducted
in the following survey schools.
Apart from the above Government Survey Schools there are
14 private Chain Survey Schools
List of Private Chain Survey Schools.
1. Chain Survey School,
2. . Florence Memorial Institute of
Chain Survey, Thirupuram,
3. National Institute of Chain Survey,
R.C. Church Compound,
(via) Amaravila, Neyyattinkara,
4. P.R.S. Technical Training Institute and
Attingal Chain Survey School,
Near Post Office, Attingal,
5. Chain Survey School
6. Chain Survey School,
7. Central Engineering Institute and
Chain Survey School,
8. Instruction Centre Chain Survey School,
Thodupuzha East P.O,
9 St. George Chain Survey School,
10.St. Mary’s Chain Survey School,
11. Mar Baselios Chain Survey School,
12. Private Chain Survey School,
13. Chain Survey School,
Near Indira Gandhi Stadium,
14.Chain Survey School,
Selection to the Government schools are made by the Director
of survey and Land Records based on the marks secured in
the SSLC examination, observing communal rotation principles.
Applications are invited during the month of August every
year. The respective Managers make selections to the private