ratio : Females/1000
Capita Income (in Rs)
Male 94.43%; Female 88.18%
line in km.
bodied area in ha.
area in ha.
Population (2000 Census)
under cultivation (ha.)
: Agricultural Statistics 2002-2003)
and Science Colleges
of registered working factories
(Distribution of P W D Roads (in kms) as on 31.03.2003
having valid registration(2003)
of Post Offices
of Telephone Exchanges
A BRIEF HISTORY
Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a trading
centre at Kollam in 1502 AD Then came the Dutch followed
by the British in 1795 AD A British garrison was stationed
at Kollam in pursuance of a treaty between Travancore
and the British.
Thampi Dalawa of Travancore did much for the improvement
of Kollam town. He built new bazars and invited merchants
from Madras and Tirunelveli to settle here. Kollam later
became the capital of the enlightened and liberal rulers
of Desinganad. It was also the nerve centre of
the rebellion organised by Velu Thampi against the British.
a city of palaces, Kollam has been known to the outside
world, by the time honoured proverb, "Once you have
seen Kollam you would no more need your illam (home)".
district is situated on the south west coast of India.
It extends from latitude 9° 28' N to 8° 45' and
longitude 76° 28' to 77° 17' N. The district is
bound on the north by Alappuzha district, north east by
the Pathanamthitta district, on the east by Thirunelveli
district of Tamil Nadu, on the south by Thiruvananthapuram
district and on the west by the Arabian Sea. The area
of the district 2,492 sq. kms. And in area the district
ranks seventh in the State.
rivers, Kallada and Ithikkara, flow through this district.
The Sasthamcotta lake, the only major fresh water lake
in the State, is here. Two other major lakes are the Ashtamudi
kayal and the Paravoor kayal. Edava and Nadayara kayals
lie partly in this district.
district has a tropical humid climate, with an oppressive
summer and plentiful seasonal rainfall. The hot season,
lasting from March to May, is followed by the south west
monsoon from June to September. The north east monsoon
occurs from October to November. The rest of the year
is generally dry.
area under forest in Kollam district is 81438 ha. and
it falls in Thenmala, Punalur and a portion of Achencoil
forest division. Thenmala Range, Aryankavu Range and Shendurney
Sanctuary Constitute the Thenmala division. Achencoil
Range, Kallar Range and Kanayar Range, make up the Achencoil
division while Punalur division includes Pathanapuram
and Anchal Ranges. Teak and softwood form the major forest
plantations in the district.
district is immensely rich in mineral resources. The beach
sands of the district have concentrations of heavy minerals
like Ilmenite, Rutile, Monosite and Zircon which offer
scope of exploitation for industrial purpose.
large deposits of China clay in Kundara, Mulavana and
Chathannoor, there are also lime shell deposits in Ashtamudi
lake, Bauxite deposits in Adichanallur and disseminated
graphite in Punalur.
ratio (defined as the number of females per 1000 males)
shows a fluctuating trend from decade to decade. Taking
the population in the district as a whole in 1941, 1971,
1981, 1991 and 2001, females outnumber males. In all other
decades there was a ponderance of males over females.
According to the 1991 census there are 1043 females for
every 1000 males, while it was 1022 in 1981 census. According
to 2001 census the sex ratio of Kollam is 1070.
density of population of the district has increased from
871 persons per sq. km. in 1981 to 963 in 1991. The total
population of the district according to 2001 census is
2,584,118 and population density is 1037.
to 1991 census, this district had a literacy rate of 90.47%
against 72.95% in 1981. It was 64.97% in 1971. And according
to 2001 census it is 91.49%.
history of the district as an administrative unit can
be traced back to 1835, when the Travancore State consisted
of two revenue divisions with headquarters at Kollam and
Kottayam. At the time of the integration of Travancore
and Cochin in 1949, Kollam was one of the three revenue
divisions in the state. These three revenue divisions
were converted into districts. Shencottah taluk was merged
with Madras State consequent on the implementation of
the State Reorganisation Act of 1956.
Alappuzha district was formed in 1957, Chertala, Ambalapuzha,
Mavelikkara, Karthikappally, Chengannur and Thiruvalla
taluks of Kollam district were united to the new district.
When Pathanamthitta district was formed on 1st July 1983,
the entire Pathanamthitta taluk and nine villages of Kunnathur
Taluk of the district were also removed. Now the district
has a single revenue division with headquarters at Kollam.
Pathanapuram, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara, Karunagappally
and Kollam are the five taluks in the district. The district
is divided into thirteen development blocks. Kollam, Paravoor
and Punalur are the three municipal towns.
district has a prominent place in the field of agriculture.
The total extent of land under cultivation is 2,18,267
hectares. The principal crops are paddy, tapioca, coconut,
rubber, pepper, banana, mango and cashew. About 70 per
cent of the work force is engaged in agriculture.
gardens extend to about 75,454 hectares. About three hundred
and forty three million coconuts are produced every year.
The five major crops: paddy, tapioca, coconut, rubber,
pepper - are cultivated in an area of 1,73,847 hectares.
Small and marginal farmers constitute more than 95% of
the farming community and the average per family holding
is 0.21 hectare. All the 71 panchayats of the district
are covered by separate Krishi Bhavans.
is an oil palm plantation at Bharatheepuram near Anchal,
in an area of 4000 hectares, under the Oil Palm India
Ltd., a state government undertaking.
rehabilitation plantations, another State Government undertaking,
is located at Kulathupuzha near Thenmala.
two rivers, the district is endowed with perennial supply
of water. In order to augment the irrigation potential,
several plans were evolved during 1953 to undertake river
basin schemes. Kallada Irrigation Project, the biggest
multipurpose project, undertaken by the State Government,
is intended to utilise the water of Kallada river, mainly
for irrigation purpose in Kollam, Pathanamthitta and Alappuzha
districts. There is also a proposal to generate 50 M.W.
of electricity from the dam at Thenmala. The Kallada project
comprises of a masonary dam of 335 m. in length with a
maximum height of 81 m. at Parappur in Thenmala across
the river to form a reservoir, a pick up weir and sluices
at Ottakkal. The 69 kms. right bank canal and the 57.75
kms. left bank canal take off from the pickup weir. It
is estimated that the two canals together will serve an
area of 68,000 hectares. The projects are aided by the
of Perumkulam yelah in Kollam taluk, West Kallada Scheme
in Kunnathur taluk, reclamation of Polachiral lake in
Kollam taluk and Ithikkara yelah schemes, are the medium
irrigation schemes in the district.
major and medium irrigation schemes are being taken up
by the State Government directly, individual minor irrigation
schemes, viz., dug-wells, bore-wells, tube- wells, pump
sets, drip and sprinkler irrigation systems are being
financed by commercial co-operative banks.
district ranks first in livestock wealth in the State.
Dairy farming is fairly well developed. There are 3.12
lakh milch cattle (1987-88 livestock census). A network
of one district veterinary centre, 2 polyclinics, 48 veterinary
dispensaries, 14 veterinary hospitals; and 167 artificial
insemination centres, cater to the needs of the district.
The number of cows increases annually by five per cent.
There are about 65 milk producers co-op. societies and
three chilling plants. The chilling plants are located
at Kollam, Kottarakkara and Yeroor. The milk producers
co-op. societies handle about 3.34 lakh litres per day.
The Kerala Livestock and Dairy Development Board has a
master plan to increase dairying. In poultry, the district
stands third and there is great scope for developing broiler
and layer poultry farms. The district is covered by the
Integrated Dairy Development Project. 'Mini-Dairy' Special
Project is under implementation, sponsored jointly by
MILMA and NABARD.
is an important maritime district of the state with a
coast line of 37.3 kms. Fishing has a prominent place
in the economy of the district. Neendakara and Sakthikulangara
villages thrive in fishing. An estimated number of 23,000
persons are engaged in fishing and allied activities.
Cheriazheekkal, Alappad, Pandarathuruthu, Puthenthura,
Neendakara, Thangasseri, Eravipuram and Paravoor are eight
among the 26 important fishing villages. There are 24
inland fishing villages also. Considering the unique location
and infrastructure available, the Government has initiated
steps for establishing a fishing harbour at Neendakara
which is expected to augment fish production by 15%. Average
fish landing is estimated to be 85,275 tonnes per year.
One third of the state's fish catch is form Kollam.
are 93 producer co-operatives, two credit cooperatives
and one marketing cooperative in the fisheries sector.
There are 38 Fishermen Development Welfare Cooperative
Societies in the district. Nearly 3000 mechanised boats
are operating from the fishing harbour. FFDA and VFFDA
are promoting fresh water fish culture and prawn farming
respectively. A model fishing village with 100 houses
is coming up at Eravipuram. A model prawn farm is coming
up at Ayiramthengu and a few new hatcheries are also coming
up to cater to the needs of the aquaculturists. About
60% of the production of prawn in the state is from this
are 17 large, and one medium scale industries in the district,
of which, two are Central Government undertakings i.e.,
the Indian Rare Earths, Chavara and Parvathi Mills Ltd.,
Ceramics Ltd., Kundara, Travancore Plywood Industries,
Punalur, Kerala Electrical and Allied Engineering Company,
Kundara, Kerala Premo Pipe factory Chavara, Kerala Minerals
and Metals Limited, Chavara, United Electrical Industries
Kollam and the Kerala Agro-Fruit Products, Punalur are
Kerala Government owned companies. Other major industries
in private/cooperative sector are Aluminium Industries
Ltd., Kundara, Thomas Stephen & Co., Kollam, Floorco
Paravur, Cooperative Spinning Mill, Chathannur and Punalur
Paper Mills, Punalur. About 1963 SSI units have been registered
in the district.
processing and coir production are also major industrial
vocations of the district. Handloom industry, clay and
wood based industries also contribute to the industrial
advancement of the region.
processing is a major industrial activity in the district.
The Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation (KSCDC)
is the largest processor of cashewnut in the world. At
present, it has 34 factories. K.S.C.D.C. provides employment
to more than 26,000 workers.
The district is covered by
132 kms. Of railway line, of which 51 kms. are broad gauge
and 81 kms., metre gauge. There are 22 railway stations
of which 9 are on broad gauge line and 13, on the metre
gauge line. Kollam is an important railway junction. The
Trivandrum-Ernakulam (via Kottayam and Alappuzha) line
pas through Kollam. Kollam is the terminal junction of
Madras - Egmore - Kollam metre gauge line.
Transport: Kollam has a total 1552.096
kms. Of roads. The National Highway 47 covers a distance
of 57.4 kms. in the district. The State Highway namely,
Main Central Road, Kollam-Shencottah Road and Punalur-Pala-Muvattupuzha
(Main Eastern Highway) with a total length of 266.52 kms.
also networks the district.
Transport: The Water Transport
Department operates boat services to Muthiraparamb (West
Kallada), Guhanandapuram, Ayiramthengu, Munrothuruthu
and Alappuzha. The Alappuzha service opens a vast vista
of tourist attraction. A full day onboard journey through
the backwaters provides an opportunity to witness the
natural life of the people around and the scenic beauty
of the place. Luxury boats, both of the Government and
private parties, operate from the main boat jetty during
the season. The west coast canal system, which starts
from Thiruvananthapuram in the south and ends at Hosdurg
in the north, passes through Kollam and Karunagappally
taluks. The Thiruvananthapruam-Shornur canal, which forms
part of the above system, runs a distance of about 62
kms. The other canal are Paravur canal, Kollam canal and
Chavara canal. The water transport department of the state,
transports over 70,000 passengers.
Neendakara and Kollam are the two
ports in the district, the former, an intermediary and
the latter, a minor port. Port operations are carried
out through Neendakara.
& Telegraph: There are 4 head
post offices, 98 sub post offices, 190 branch post offices
and 52 E.D. post offices in the district. The number of
telegraph officers is 140 and that of telephone exchanges
is 71. The central telegraph office is at Chinnakkada.
Communication: There are a number
of daily newspapers published from this district of which,
Kerala Kaumudi, Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi
are morning dailies and Kerala Rajyam, Vartha Rahasyam,
Sayanha Sabdam, Kerala Malar, Jayasoorya, Prasanthi, Thrikonam,
Citizen Times, Yuva Express, Nattu Vartha and Rashtra
Deepika are evening dailies. Kumari, Kumkumam,
Kerala Sabdam and Nana are weeklies and
Mahilaretnam, Kasturi, Chithra Katha (Malayalam and
Tamil) and Career, are the monthlies published from this
the capital of the erstwhile Venad, was a great centre
of learning and culture. It attracted distinguished scholars
from all parts of South India. Leelathilakam and
Unnuneelisandesam, two outstanding literary works
of historical importance, are contributions of 14th Century
Kollam. The dance form of Kathakali in its new
version of Ramanattam was the creation of Kottarakkara
Thampuran, who also improved Krishnattam by substituting
Malayalam for Sanskrit.
K.C.Kesava Pillai, a gifted poet, prose writer, dramatist
and scholar, originated the musical play in Malayalam
through his work Sadarma. His Kesaveeyam,
a Mahakavyam, is of outstanding literary importance. In
the history of Malayalam music, he has a prominent place
as a gifted composer of songs. Paravoor Kesavan Asan,
the founder editor of Sujanandini, another prominent
literary figure, was a journalist and a prose writer of
eloquence. His Saratchandrika is a contribution to the
study of Ayurvedic system of medicine E.V.Krishna Pillai,
another literary celebrity has etched his name in the
field of humour and satire. C.V.Kunjuraman, editor of
Kerala Kaumudi and Malayalarajyam was a poet, literary
critic, prose writer and a journalist of outstanding distinction.
to modern times, Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai and Soornadu
Kunjan Pillai, noted literary historians and poets like
O.N.V. Kurup, Thirunallur Karunakaran, Punalur Balan,
novelist and poet Lalithambika Antharjanam are some of
the literary luminaries hailing from this district.
like T.M.Varghese, C.Kesavan, Kumbalathu Sanku Pillai,
N.Sreekantan Nair, R.Shankar and C.M.Stephen who played
prominent roles in shaping the socio-political destiny
of the State, are also from this district. The district
gave birth to well known freedom fighters like Chandiran
Kali Ambi (Kadakkal Manthri) and Franco Raghavan Pillai.